Official name: 
Republic of Turkey
Name in local language: 
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Form of government: 
Political system: 
  • Founding date/ Date of independence: 29 October 1923
  • Date of constitution/reform: Current constitution approved in 1982. Since then it has been reformed on several occasions. A parliamentary committee is currently preparing the draft of a new constitution. 
  • Form of state: Unitary
  • Administrative divisions: 81 administrative provinces
  • Official language(s): Turkish
  • Other spoken languages: Kurdish, Arabic, Laz, Circassian, Armenian, Greek, Romani.
  • Official religion: Secular
  • Minorities: Following the Treaty of Lausanne the state recognises only three religious minorities: Jews, Armenians and Orthodox Greeks. In Turkey there is a wide variety of ethnic and religious groups
  • Dominant actor(s): Political parties along with a strong military and judicial influence.
  • Elected institutions of government: Legislative elections: Every four years (after amendment to the Constitution on 21st October).

    Presidential elections: Every five years allowing the president to stand for re-election for a second term (after amendment to the Constitution on 21st October).

  • Non-elected  institutions of government:  provincial governors
  • Party system: At present, described as a dominant party system (according to Sartori's classification) where the Justice and Development Party (AKP, Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi), currently in power, has obtained three consecutive election victories since 2002. This fact has distanced the party significantly from its political rivals.  The other relevant political parties are the center-left Republican People's Party (CHP, Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi), the ultranationalist and conservative Nationalist Action Party (MHP, Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi) and the pro-Kurdish centre-left Party of Peace and Democracy (BDP, Barış ve Demokrasi Partisi). Democracy and Progres Party (DEVA) and Future Party (Gelecek Partisi) were established by former AKP misinters. 

Current authorities