Republic of Iraq
Name in local language:
جمهورية العـراق, transliterated as Yumhūriyyatu al-‘Irāq
Form of government:
- Founding date/ Date of independence: 3 October 1932, from the United Kingdom.Declaration of Republic of Iraq: 14 July 1958
- Date of constitution/reform: 15 October 2005
- Form of state: Federal
- Administrative divisions: 18 governorates or muhafadhat
- Official language(s): Arabic, Kurd
- Other spoken languages: Turkmen, neo-Aramaic, Persian and Armenian.
- Official religion: Multi-confessional
- Minorities: Ethnic include Kurds, Assyrians, Turkomans and Persians; Religious include Sunnis, Christians (Chaldean) and Yazidi Muslims
- Dominant actor(s): USA until the end of the occupation; disperse authority territorially disputed by Shiite, Kurds and the Islamic State (ISIS)
- Elected institutions of government:Parliament, congresses of governorates and parliament of Kurdistan. The president is elected by two thirds of the parliament. Covenant of 3 members: the Presidency of the State and the Prime Minister's Office are split between Sunni Arabs, Shiite Arabs and Kurds, being the president a Kurd, the first vice-president a Shiite and the second a Sunni. The prime minister is a Shiite, the First Deputy Prime Minister a Sunni and the second a Kurd.
- Non-elected institutions of government:
- Party system: Multiparty system. After each election need for a coalition. There are no precise poles. There is currently a national coalition government that encompasses the main political parties issue of months of negotiations after the last elections in 2010.
- Head of state: Barham Salih, replaced Fouad Massoum in October 2018.
- Head of government: Adil Abdul-Mahdi, replaced Haider Abadi in 2018, after the October elections.
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Mohamed al-Ghabban
- Minister of Interior: Qassim Al Araji.
- Head(s) of Legislative Branch: Salim al-Yaburi
- Composition legislative branch: Link to PDF
- Head of the Judiciary: Medhat al-Mahmoud (president of the Supreme Court)
- Schematic representation of the political system: Link to PDF